Automobiles, also known as cars, are wheeled vehicles that are designed for transportation. They are powered by an internal combustion engine using a volatile fuel.
The automobile has been an essential part of modern life and culture, making it possible for people to commute to work or school, visit family and friends, shop for food, and take vacations. The industry is a huge employer and contributes to the economy of many nations. However, cars can have a negative impact on the environment. They produce greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, which is why it is important to drive a car that uses fuel efficiently.
Until the late 1800s, most people could only afford to own or use a horse-drawn carriage. When Louis Greenough and Harry Adams of Pierre, South Dakota, modified a wagon with an Elkhart gas engine to haul passengers at the county fair in 1890, anti-horseless carriage sentiment was still strong enough that local authorities banned them from city streets.
By 1920, the automobile had conquered the roads of the United States. The country’s vast land area and equitable income distribution made it an especially promising market for this new type of transport. Cheap raw materials and a tradition of industrial manufacturing also helped to spur demand. Henry Ford innovated assembly line techniques in his Highland Park, Michigan, factory in 1910, which reduced the price of his Model T runabout until it became affordable for middle-class families.
Today, most people find it difficult to imagine a life without a car. Even when public transit is available, driving a car can provide a sense of freedom and independence that makes it easier to get where you need to be, especially at odd hours when buses don’t operate. Cars also make it easier to maintain social connections, visiting relatives who live far away or in areas not easily accessible by bus routes.
On the downside, cars can be expensive to maintain. Regular oil changes and unexpected repairs can add up. They are also a major source of air pollution, and a growing number of people are choosing to purchase electric cars that emit no greenhouse gases.
The History of the Automobile
The automobile has long captured human imagination and inventiveness. The first self-propelled vehicle is thought to have been a harbor dredge scow built with a steam engine by Ferdinand Verbiest in 1672. The first patent for an automobile in the United States was awarded to Oliver Evans in 1789 for his “Amphibious Digger.” The invention of the automobile has had a profound effect on the world, altering society, business, and technology. It has transformed our lives and now, as the Age of the Automobile begins to meld into an Age of Electronics, it is time for us to reflect on its achievements, challenges, and potential. This article was adapted from The Reader’s Companion to American History, edited by Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1991.